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Electronic Theses & Dissertations (ETD)


You need to properly cite your sources whether you use their ideas, words, data, etc.  The APA manual, chapter 8, 253-278, explains why and how you can credit your sources properly.  Sometimes this even means crediting your source's sources!  Crediting your sources consists of two parts: citing references in the text of your document and providing a full list of references.

Here's a quick guide on where to look in the APA manual for help:

  • General Guidelines (plagiarism, self-plagiarism, primary/secondary sources) - Sections 8.1 - 8.6, pp. 253-258
  • In-text citation information - Sections 8.10 - 8.22, pp. 261-268
  • Paraphrasing and Quotations - Sections 8.23 - 8.36, pp. 269-278

APA Citation Examples - 7th Edition


The APA manual, chapter 10, pages 313-352, shows how to format a wide variety of research resources.

Here's the location of some common examples:

  • Blog posts - Section 10.1, pp. 320
  • Books - Section 10.2 - 10.3, pp. 321-329
  • Dissertations and Theses - Section 10.6, pp. 333-334
  • Journal articles - Section 10.1, pp. 316-320
  • Magazine articles - Section section 10.1, pp. 320
  • Newspaper articles - Section 10.1, pp. 320
  • Websites/Webpages - Section 10.16, pp. 350-352

Make sure to check the entire chapter for a full list of reference examples.

Additional Examples:

  • How to cite a YouTube Video
  • How to cite a Podcast
    • Section 10.13, pp 345
  • How to cite a Tweet
    • Section 10.15, pp. 348-349


It is important to cite your research sources to provide proper credit to those who have influenced your work.  As listed on page 15 of the APA manual, "Researchers do not claim the words and ideas of another as their own; they give credit where credit is due (APA Ethics Code, Standard 8.11, Plagarism)."  To understand plagiarism and self-plagiarism, see section 1.17, pp. 21 of the APA manual.

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).


Whether you get your research from a database, blog, or generic website, you need to provide links that will help readers track back to your resources.  Most URLs have a short life span so DOIs provide more stable links.  If the resource moves to another URL on the internet, its DOI should direct a user to that new location.

See the APA manual, section 9.34 and 9.35, pp. 298-300 for more information regarding URLs and DOIs.


Sometimes, you can't find a particular piece of information for your reference, e.g. date. What do you do when information is missing? The APA Style Blog has a helpful chart, "How to Write an APA Style Reference When Information Is Missing" (, with tips.